Senin, 09 November 2015

Planning Human Resources

During the planning of human resources (PCR) today refers to determining when, where, how, what training, at what price would be required to staff the organization realize its objectives. The main objective of human resources planning (in the narrow sense) is to ensure the implementation plans of the organization in terms of the human factor - workers: their numbers, qualifications, performance, cost. Poor human resources planning organizations costly and can lead to loss of valuable resources. At the same time an effective human resources planning positive effect on the results of the organization by:

Human resource planning

  • Optimizing the use of personnel. Detailed planning reveals and productively use the unclaimed potential of employees by expanding the duties of transferring workers to other jobs, the reorganization of production processes;
  • Improve the hiring process. Planning is the source of information on staffing needs of the organization, which makes it possible to provide search and selection of candidates for systematic basis, reduce costs and avoid the crises that are related to lack of staff;
  • Organization of professional training. Plan on human resources is the basis for planning and professional training. Development of the plan allows for qualified employees.

Sources staffing needs of the organization. To determine the needs of organizations in human resources, you must understand the factors under which they are formed. Since the organization is open social systems, their need for workers arise under the influence of both internal and external factors.

Internal factors. The needs of the organization as workers depend primarily on the goals facing it, which are necessary for the implementation of human resources. The more specific organizational goal, the better to identify the needs of workers needed for its implementation.

External factors. Among many external to the organization, there are several factors the most important, which directly affect the labor market - a source of labor for most modern organizations.
Macroeconomic parameters. Economic growth, inflation and unemployment, structural changes have a strong impact on the strategy of the organization and the labor market.

The development of techniques and technologies can thus radically change the way organizations need workers. Suffice it to recall personal computers that have replaced tellers millions worldwide.
Political changes can affect human resources requirements and the state of the labor market due to changes in legislation (tax regime, social insurance legislation on labor), adjustment of macroeconomic parameters, creating a certain political climate in the country.

Methods for forecasting human resources requirements. Understanding the dynamics of the factors that affect the organization's needs in employees is the foundation of human resources planning. Modern organizations use different methods of planning.

Extrapolation - the simplest and most commonly used method, which is to transfer the current situation for the future.

The appeal in its extrapolation method accessibility, limited is the inability to take into account changes in the organization and development of the environment. In this regard, this method is suitable for short-term planning and organizations with stable structure, operating in a stable environment. Many organizations are adjusted by extrapolation, taking into account changes in the balance of factors that determine the number of employees - increased productivity, higher prices and so on.

Expert assessments - this method is based on the opinions of experts use to determine the human resources requirements. Department of Human Resources planning has been collecting and processing their ratings. Depending on the size of the organization and the number of line managers for this can be used various methods: group discussion, written examination (if each manager offered answer prepared questions human resources department) method of Delphi. The latter is a written dialogue between the Department of Human Resources and a group of experts. As a result of dialogue reached agreement on the need for workers.

Advantages of the method of expert estimates are as participation of line managers, their knowledge and experience give the plan more weight in the eyes of senior management. Disadvantages of the method associated with the complexity of collecting and processing of expert opinions and subjectivity of judgments.

Computer models are a set of mathematical formulas that allow simultaneous use extrapolation techniques, expert opinions, and information about the dynamics of the factors that affect the organization's needs for workers. Models make it possible to achieve the most accurate predictions needs workers. But the high cost and the need for specialized knowledge restrict their use.
Planning of Human Resources has two approaches:

- Socialist approach to respond to instructions from the center, focusing on short-term production problems;
- Market approach focuses on the integration needs of human resources in the strategic goals of the organization and projection of needs for the future.

Planning human resources in the context of the public sector is defined as: the process by which the government wants to be certain that it has and will continue the quantity and quality of employees that meets his obligations. However, we can note that this definition fully applies to the private sector. When planning human resources should take account of the two types of factors:

- Internal factors: existing warehouse labor organization; jobs, the need for new positions; expectations abbreviation of the state (dismissal, termination of employment, retirement); new organizational structures or operations that require the recruitment of new workers or their movement; wage structure and labor and social costs.

- External factors: national employment levels; supply and demand on the market for certain professional groups with a certain level of qualification (managers, engineers, financiers, etc.); number of graduates, demanded of the economy; skills, entering the labor market and who have a certain level of competition; forecast future economic activity, to maintain the level of wages and salaries of employees; legal requirements or regulations regarding the employment of specific groups.

These symptoms can include in model planning. PCR is possible if the active application of computer systems, allowing the objective of processing existing information and modeling needs in human resources.

Stages of development models PCR for Planning Human Resources:

identify future needs in terms of qualification, abilities and other requirements;
prudence regarding future needs of existing staff personnel;
implementation of the recruitment of new workers or abbreviation of the state for the purpose of balancing the needs of the planned;
planning training and re-training to fill any emerging gaps in personnel policies of the organization.
PCR provides information process and framework for decision-making regarding future activities throughout HRM.

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